Citing Your Sources
Lesson 6

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MLA Citation Style

MLA citation style uses a combination of parenthetical citations in the text of the document and a list of works cited located at the end of the document. Parenthetical citations are placed at the end of a quotation. They refer the reader to the list of works cited for a more complete citation.

Citing sources with MLA

MLA Hanbook

The most authoritative source for MLA citation guidelines is the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. It can be purchased at the SHC bookstore. The MLA Handbook is also available at the library Reference Desk, and online.

As mentioned earlier, MLA citation style requires parenthetical citations in the text of the document, and a list of works cited. For the parenthetical citation it is usually enough to list the author's last name and the page from which the quote is taken. Here is an example:

Medieval Europe was a place both of "raids, pillages, slavery, and extortion" and of "traveling merchants, monetary exchange, towns if not cities, and active markets in grain" (Townsend 10).

Townsend is the author of the book from which the quote was taken. The quote came from page 10 of the book. If your reader turned to your list of works cited she/he would find the complete citation for the book:

Townsend, Robert M. The Medieval Village Economy. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1993.

Below are a few examples of how to use MLA citation style to cite resources. For a complete list consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

Book with single author
Parenthetical Citation
(Author's last name [space] Page number)

List of Works Cited
Basic Format
Author's Last Name [space] Author's First Name. Title of Work. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication.

Sample Citation
Quaratiello, Arlene Rodda. The College Student's Research Companion. New York: Neal Schuman Publishers, 1997.
Print Encyclopedia Article
(Format for familiar encyclopedias that frequently publish new editions, i.e. World Book, Britannica, etc.)
Parenthetical Citation
(Author's or Editor's last name [space] Page number)

List of Works Cited
Basic Format
Author of Article [last name first, if a name is given]. "Title of Article." Title of Encyclopedia. Edition. Date of Publication.

Sample Citation
"Bookbinding." World Book. 2000 ed. 2000. (There is no author because World Book articles are unsigned ).
Print Encyclopedia Article
(Format for less familiar encyclopedias that do not often publish new editions.)
List of Works Cited
Basic Format
Author of Article [last name first]. "Title of Article." Title of Encyclopedia. Editor. Edition. Number of volumes. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication.

Sample Citation
Bedau, Hugo Adam. "Civil Disobedience." Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics. Ed. Ruth Chadwick. 4 vols. Sandiego: Academic Press, 1998. (No edition is listed in this example because the encyclopedia is a first edition).
Online Encyclopedia Article
List of Works Cited
Basic Format
Author of Article [last name first] (if available). "Title of Article." Title of Encyclopedia. <Encyclopedia homepage address (URL)>.

Sample Citation
"Racism" Encyclopaedia Britannica. <http://www.eb.com:180/>.
Print Magazine Article
Parenthetical Citation
(Author's last name [space] Page number)

List of Works Cited
Basic Format
Author's Last Name [space] Author's First Name. "Title of Magazine Article." Title of Magazine Date of Publication: Page Numbers of Article.

Sample Citation
Krimmerman, Len. "Worker Ownership's Uncertain Future: Lessons From Two Decades of Trials." Dollars and Sense: What's Left in Economics Sept./Oct. 1998: 28-32.
Online Magazine Article (from a full-text magazine database)
List of Works Cited
Basic Format
Author's Last Name [space] Author's First Name. "Title of Magazine Article." Title of Magazine Date of Publication: Page Numbers of Article (if available). Name of the Periodical Database.
Location of electronic database. Date of access.

Sample Citation
Kaminer, Wendy. "The Last Taboo: Why America Needs Atheism." New Republic. 14 Oct. 1996: 24+. Expanded Academic Index. Spring Hill College Thomas Byrne Library. August 10, 2001.
Print Scholarly Journal Article
Parenthetical Citation
(Author's last name [space] Page number)

List of Works Cited
Basic Format
Author's Last Name [space] Author's First Name. "Title of Journal Article." Title of Journal Volume Number (Date of Publication) : Page Numbers of Article.

Sample Citation
Whitney, Elspeth. "The Witch 'She' / The Historian 'He': Gender and the Historiography of the European Witch-Hunts." Journal of Women's History 7 (1995) : 77-101.
Online Scholarly Journal Article (from a full-text online database)
List of Works Cited
Basic Format
Author's Last Name [space] Author's First Name. "Title of Journal Article." Title of Journal Volume Number (Date of Publication) : Page Numbers of Article (if available). Name of the Periodical Database. Location of electronic database. Date of access.

Sample Citation
Hole, Simon. "Teacher as rain Dancer." Journal of Communication 68.3 (1998) : 413+. Expanded Academic Index. Spring Hill College Thomas Byrne Library. August 7,2001.
Print Newspaper Article
Parenthetical Citation
(Author's last name [space] Page number)

List of Works Cited
Basic Format
Author's Last Name [space] Author's First Name. "Title of Newspaper Article." Title of Newspaper Date of Publication, Edition: Section and Page Number(s) of Article.

Sample Citation
Feder, Barnaby J. "For Job Seekers, A Toll-Free Gift of Expert Advice." New York Times 30 Dec. 1993, late ed.: D1+.
Online Newspaper Article (from a full-text newspaper database)
List of Works Cited
Basic Format
Author's Last Name [space] Author's First Name. "Title of Newspaper Article." Title of Newspaper Date of Publication, Edition: Section and Page Number(s) of Article. Name of the Newspaper Database
. Location of electronic database. Date of access.

Sample Citation
Ivans, Molly. " An Expensive Bid to Marshal the Voters' Dislike." Star Tribune 15 Oct. 2000, 27A. ProQuest. Spring Hill College Thomas Byrne Library. August 7, 2001.
Web Page
Web pages are more difficult to cite because they do not contain pagination; authors may not be listed; and it may not be clear who the publisher is or when the page was published. When citing a web page you should try to get as much traditional citation information as possible. In addition to the traditional citation information you will need to include the web page address (URL).
Parenthetical Citation
(Author's last name if given; if there is no author, use title of the web page; if there is no title use the name of the organization producing the web page)

List of Works Cited
Basic Format
Author's Last Name [space] Author's First Name. "Title of Web Page." Title of the Complete Web Site if Applicable. Date of Publication, or Last Revision. <Web Page Address (URL)> (Date on which you visited the web site)

Sample Citation
Eland, Thomas W. "Information Literacy Tutorial." Minneapolis Community and Technical College Library. 1999. <http://www.mctc.mnscu.edu/academicAffairs/library/
tutorials/infolit/index.html> (May. 31, 2000).

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